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Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engines

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Old 04-29-2012, 05:51 PM
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Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engines

Hyundai’s direct injected and turbocharged 1.6L is but one example.

http://www.cleanmpg.com/photos/data/501/Hyundai_1_6L_GDI.jpg
Wayne Gerdes - CleanMPG - April 29, 2012

Hyundai’s 1.6L GDI-T – Powerful and efficient far beyond what its ratings indicate.

Hyundai’s award winning Gamma 1.6L I4 is the smallest Hyundai engine to use Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) with turbocharging to provide a highway fuel economy rating of 38 mpg with lower emissions.

GDI + Twin-Scroll = Fast and Efficient

The 1.6-liter turbocharged GDI I4 engine scheduled to be inside the upcoming 2013 Veloster Turbo produces 201 HP at 6000 rpm and 195 lb-ft of torque from 1750 – 4500 rpm. And it does so on regular unleaded.

The Veloster Turbos 1.6L GDI-T is currently estimated to deliver a 27/38 mpgUS city/highway when mated to Hyundai slick shifting 6-speed. The engine features a twin-scroll turbocharger that when combined with the GDI system, results in almost instantaneous power delivery. Hyundai has brought this technology down its line-up from the award winning Sonata 2.0T.

Hyundai’s twin-scroll turbo in explicit detail

Twin-scroll turbochargers designs have two exhaust gas inlets divided by split walls inside the turbine housing, with both gas passages controlled by a waste-gate. A twin-scroll turbo recovers even more energy from the exhaust than a single-scroll turbocharger, thanks to a divided manifold. The twin-scroll design separates the cylinders whose exhaust gas pulses interfere with each other, resulting in improved pressure distribution in the exhaust ports and a more efficient delivery of exhaust gas energy to the turbocharger’s turbine.

At the start of the intake stroke of cylinder one and when both the intake and exhaust valves of cylinder one are open (valve overlap period), cylinder three already starts its exhaust stroke with the exhaust valve open. If the exhaust passages of cylinder one and three were connected, the exhaust gas pulse from cylinder three would increase the back pressure of cylinder one. This would reduce the induction of the fresh air and increase the amount of hot residual gases inside the cylinder. With the twin-scroll turbocharger setup, the interference is minimized.

The result of this superior scavenging effect from a twin-scroll design leads to better pressure distribution in the exhaust ports and a more efficient delivery of exhaust gas energy to the turbocharger's turbine. This in turn allows greater valve overlap, resulting in an improved quality and quantity of the air charge entering each cylinder. In fact, with more valve overlap, the scavenging effect of the exhaust flow can literally draw more air in on the intake side. At the same time, drawing out the last of the low-pressure exhaust gases help pack each cylinder with a denser and purer air charge. Maximum boost from the turbocharger is 18 psi.

The twin-scroll turbocharger design has several other advantages over traditional, single-scroll turbocharging systems, including:
  • Improved combustion efficiency
  • Low engine-speed efficiency
  • Kinetic exhaust gas energy is not wasted or trapped
  • Cooler cylinder temperatures
  • Lower exhaust temperatures
  • Leaner air/fuel ratio
  • Better pressure distribution in the exhaust ports and more efficient delivery of exhaust gas energy to the turbocharger's turbine
GDI

The GDI fuel delivery system contributes to improved fuel efficiency and lower emissions. This shorter, more direct path of fuel delivery allows for greater control of the fuel mixture at the optimum moment, thus improving efficiency. The fuel is injected by a camshaft-driven, high pressure pump that operates at pressures up to 2175 psi. Direct injection also utilizes a higher-than-normal compression ratio, while achieving a best-in-class 125.6 horsepower-per-liter in the Veloster Turbo.

Hyundai American Technical Center Inc. (HATCI) Powertrain Director, John Juriga:
Quote:
“Direct-injection with turbocharging allowed engineers to create an engine that is powerful, fuel-efficient, and creates fewer emissions.”
Along with GDI-T, the turbocharged Gamma engine also features Dual Continuously Variable Valve Timing, an electronic throttle control, a roller timing chain, variable induction and innovative anti-friction coatings such as CrN Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) coating and Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coating.

Looking Forward - Direct Injection Improves Fuel Economy, Reduces Emissions

By 2016, the number of hyper-efficient gasoline fueled I4s will increase by 20 percent to more than 20 million units globally. Based on this trend, most every automaker will offer a turbocharged gasoline engine.

With 2025 CAFE standards of 54.5 mpg looming, high-precision direct injection technology allows vehicles to consume less fuel and produce fewer emissions without sacrificing output. Using Bosch technology including direct injection, turbocharging and variable valve timing, engines can achieve upwards of 18 percent reduction in fuel consumption and emissions. In combination with extreme downsizing, Bosch aims to achieve a 30 percent reduction in fuel consumption for gasoline engines equipped with their technologies.
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Old 04-29-2012, 05:56 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

Oh my... I'd LOVE to take this one for a drive. Now make a convertible version for my mid-life crisis mobile please!
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Old 04-29-2012, 07:33 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

a bit of ethanol will really boost the cooling effect of direct injection, allowing the engine to do full timing advance and perhaps best the gas economy of regular gasoline!

In any case the atkinson engine / HSD transmission combo gives you even more efficiency without using a turbo or direct injection.. and the best part is that the Paice patent runs out this year.
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Old 04-29-2012, 09:56 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

If DI and turbo are really the answer, then the examples on the road today must be poorly tuned.

The Honda CR-V is leading class FE with 2.4L non-turbo, non-DI, 5-speed transmission.
The competition offers worse FE despite possessing one or both of these technologies, and a 6-speed auto. (Chevy Equinox: 2.4L DI; 2013 Ford Escape: 2.0L Turbo+DI).

The same goes for the Civic HF which also has no DI, no Turbo, and 1 less gear but still beats:
Mazda 3 SkyActiv
Hyundai Elantra
Chevy Cruze Eco
Ford Focus SFE

So what gives? It sounds like Honda has been spending a lot of late nights in the lab, while the other guys are just throwing random tech into the engine bay so management stops hassling them.
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Old 04-29-2012, 10:20 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

Quote:
Originally Posted by RichXKU View Post
If DI and turbo are really the answer, then the examples on the road today must be poorly tuned.

The Honda CR-V is leading class FE with 2.4L non-turbo, non-DI, 5-speed transmission.
The competition offers worse FE despite possessing one or both of these technologies, and a 6-speed auto. (Chevy Equinox: 2.4L DI; 2013 Ford Escape: 2.0L Turbo+DI).

The same goes for the Civic HF which also has no DI, no Turbo, and 1 less gear but still beats:
Mazda 3 SkyActiv
Hyundai Elantra
Chevy Cruze Eco
Ford Focus SFE

So what gives? It sounds like Honda has been spending a lot of late nights in the lab, while the other guys are just throwing random tech into the engine bay so management stops hassling them.
Do they all have the same HP and performance for comparison? What about price?
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Old 04-29-2012, 10:41 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

Quote:
Originally Posted by RichXKU View Post
If DI and turbo are really the answer, then the examples on the road today must be poorly tuned.

The Honda CR-V is leading class FE with 2.4L non-turbo, non-DI, 5-speed transmission.
The competition offers worse FE despite possessing one or both of these technologies, and a 6-speed auto. (Chevy Equinox: 2.4L DI; 2013 Ford Escape: 2.0L Turbo+DI).

The same goes for the Civic HF which also has no DI, no Turbo, and 1 less gear but still beats:
Mazda 3 SkyActiv
Hyundai Elantra
Chevy Cruze Eco
Ford Focus SFE

So what gives? It sounds like Honda has been spending a lot of late nights in the lab, while the other guys are just throwing random tech into the engine bay so management stops hassling them.
Well, I'm sure that the following helps a bit:
Focus: 2,907
Chevy Cruze Eco: 3,102
Civic HF: 2,698

But, yes, Honda simply has some very good engineering. Presumably if they added DI it'd give another bump.
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Old 04-29-2012, 11:09 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

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Originally Posted by worthywads View Post
Do they all have the same HP and performance for comparison? What about price?
I know the CRV starts lower than the other two. The civic HF should be very close as well.

Here's some HP/Torques:
Civic HF: 140/128
Mazda 3 SkyActiv: 155/148
Hyundai Elantra: 148/131 (apparently the Elantra does not have DI, my mistake)
Chevy Cruze Eco: 138/148 (Turbo, but not DI)
Ford Focus SFE: 160/146

Power to weight ratio is about the same. (Thanks I.N.A.T.M.)

Honda CRV: 185/163
Ford Escape: 173/177; 237/250 (more with premium fuel)
Chevy Equinox: 182/172
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Old 04-29-2012, 11:42 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

Quote:
Originally Posted by RichXKU View Post
I know the CRV starts lower than the other two. The civic HF should be very close as well.

Here's some HP/Torques:
Civic HF: 140/128
Mazda 3 SkyActiv: 155/148
Hyundai Elantra: 148/131 (apparently the Elantra does not have DI, my mistake)
Chevy Cruze Eco: 138/148 (Turbo, but not DI)
Ford Focus SFE: 160/146

Power to weight ratio is about the same. (Thanks I.N.A.T.M.)

Honda CRV: 185/163
Ford Escape: 173/177; 237/250 (more with premium fuel)
Chevy Equinox: 182/172
Sorry, that was sort of a rhetorical queston, but thanks.

At 201 HP the GDI is significantly above the Civic HF and most of the others. If Hyundai chose to make a 1.2L with 140/128 hp/torque it may well beat the Civic HF. Hyundai may be betting on more sales to people wanting power and good economy. Sorta like diesels where people pay a big premium not expecting a payback, but power with economy. No doubt not all engine design groups are getting equal results, but Turbo and DI seems to have promise.
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Old 04-30-2012, 06:20 AM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

It looks like the Honda design traded off torque for higher fuel efficiency.
Torque is nice when towing or going uphill on an extended steep incline.
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Old 04-30-2012, 12:06 PM
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Re: Downsizing with Direct Injection and Turbocharging Is the Future of Gasoline Engi

Wayne, thanks for going into some detail about how twin-scroll turbos work. I had never heard of them before. Maybe I can find an animation somewhere that shows the operation.
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