Hybrid Automobile, with Two Propulsions of Electricity and Compressed-air
Hi everybody. I've worked on a plan of a hybrid car for about a year. My intention was to help the environment, in particular the weather of Iran where we suffer from its pollution. I started a review on the existing possibilities and I found out the electric vehicles are interesting options. So I focused on removing their flaws and I reached to the present document. I hope to improve it by the help of experts. Also I like a company or person would determine to build it; because I cannot by myself. I'm just a man of theory, and I have no equipments. However, I will keep contacting to active companies about my plan with the hope of realizing it someday. If this plan would gain attention from the people who care about the environment and future of the planet, that would be a contribution of mine to the world.
On developing a powertrain in a hybrid car with electricity and compressed-air propulsions
Abstract: A hybrid car with two propulsions of compressed-air and electricity is outlined. To fill up the compressed-air tanks, two methods of electrical and manual air are proposed. The electric propulsion is based on two collections of storing batteries and capacitors. The desired batteries are lithium-ion  and the desired capacitors are supercapacitors , in which they could store a significant amount of electric energy. The emphasis in this paper is on the methods of electrically charging the car. A big problem of the present electric vehicles (EVs) is the rather long time to charge them compared to fueling the conventional cars. Also EVs have short range of motion, due to losing the electric energy storage. Therefore if one would provide the electricity for the EVs for most of the time – not if always – one could drive long distances by them and to have less dependence on the grid for charging them. This would lessen the pressure on electricity, their self-dependence to produce their needed kinetic energy during moving that originates from the environment-polluting power plants. Also it could reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. However, to guarantee the EV to move in the worst conditions, supplying the electricity from the modified grid remains as an option. Four methods of storing the electricity in this EV are:
1) Charging by the modified grid,
2) Charging by the solar cells, interior and exterior of the car,
3) Charging by the bio-force, and
4) Charging by the physical effects.
The type of batteries [(albeit a combination of the oncoming batteries, in the terms of need and case, ought to be verified): 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] and supercapacitors [13, 14] is not the main subject of this paper. Some present models in the car manufacturing industry are assumed proper; more effective and more greenly-made, better.
Introduction: Nowadays, a great problem of environment is the greenhouse effects because of air polluting gases. One important reason of such polluters are cars; therefore if a propulsion system for cars can be presented which is environment-polluter free, that would be a help to the environment. One such solution is the EVs which run completely on the electricity.
It is assumed that a main problem of the EVs is the long time to charge, that causes consuming a lot of power of a plant. That plant might pollute the environment; also a nearly long charge time creates a higher price for the related owner's power bill. On the other hand, after passing a given mileage distance that usually is not too long, the EV gets discharged and it needs electricity again. So if the EV needs electric energy, new methods are required that would be a step toward improving the efficiency and strength of the EVs.
In this direction, some methods such as reducing car weight, an aerodynamic-shape and smart driving (start-stop mechanism, coasting (whenever it is possible and right, e.g., while going downhill), and brake to regenerate the power for the battery [15, 16] or otherwise ), have already been suggested. Having accepted all these issues , this paper attempts to discuss that some further issues would be brought up which we guess could develop comfort and amelioration of the batteries, and charging them too.
In the discussion of comfort and reducing the pressure on the batteries, the basics of the framework is aiding by using a compressed-air propulsion system, and also the use of supercapacitors to support the battery set. It means the car propulsion is a series-parallel hybrid system  similar to that of Toyota Prius  where electricity and compressed-air will propel it (See Fig. 1), but needed electricity can be provided by the batteries and/or supercapacitors whenever required. So one might call this powertrain as a tribid, instead of hybrid. There are four ways of charging: 1) Charging through the (modified) power grid: This is the major current charging method and if other methods would not be available with ease, there would be more dependence on this method. Although it is proposed that a set of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), solar panels, and an electrical storing system would be mounted on top of lightning posts, inside and outside of the cities, in an every other post order; to give the excess of electrically lightening charges to the EVs.
This means that if we exclude half of the present lightning posts from the circuit of the grid, and equip them with a system of renewable electric energy to gain their power, charging of the EVs by these posts will not increase consuming fossil fuels. If needed, any EV could pull over and stop nearby a post – those are almost anywhere having a sign of civilization – and get enough electricity to at least arrive to a nearby main charging place.
The reason of suggesting to approximately half of the posts, is to guarantee producing light – their main purpose for the people – in the worst conditions (i.e., no wind, no sun, no storage, etc). To assess the feedback of such a plan that is not a heavy expense, a short distance between two close cities (for example about 10 kilometers away) can be achieved as an experiment, to observe the consequences of this plan.
Such a plan can be operated in a larger scale, not for half, but for all of the high-voltage transmitting line towers . Getting power from other EVs via a plug-in transfer interface can also be achieved  without prevent stealing electricity by thieves. Systems would require two protective layers, first a burglar alarm, and second the driver's approval for the power transfer by pushing his finger on his keychain.
2) Charging by the solar cells, interior and exterior of the car: This method was performed in limited scales before. For instance in an option of the Toyota Prius, one can increase the range of the car up to 15 km in a sunny day, by installing a solar panel on the car roof ; at another example of a harsh sun lighting, the hexagonal roof by the help of the smart interior air condition system, does not allow the cabin becomes too warm and unbearable for the passengers . It needs to be mentioned that this method goes far beyond an option in this paper, and it is being considered as an important contribution.
3) Charging by the bio-force: This means using human agents like passengers or even domestic animals. We desire to use the power of passengers' bodies. To that end, a conveyor belt – the same kind of being applied in a treadmill – can be mounted into the car floor to run using electricity storage, and charge some part of the batteries by the force of runner's legs. The belt is connected to a tiny electric motor which by swirling the belt, the shaft of the motor rotates. Thus it generates the electric current; reverse functioning of the heavy-duty, motor-driven treadmills. Clearly, this possibility can be limited to an option for powerful users in special occasions like camping. Therefore, the range of the produced electricity by this option can be from a short and soft walking (by a man or a pet) for fun, to severe running on it. Otherwise, the user uninstalls the whole treadmill set when he does not intend to apply it. So he reduces the weight of the car. He uses this device when the situation is fit for that.
It would be appropriate to be able to remove this platform that is on the exterior of the car too. Also, it is suggested to give a treadmill to a buyer, when selling as a gift, to be able to give a contribution to charge his car while sporting in his house. Another possibility is to use windup device technology by rotating a handle by hand, or pedaling by foot used for charging batteries or supercapacitors. The order of placing these devices will be explained in further.
4) Charging by the physical effects: This means to apply a physical phenomena to provide the needed electricity of the car. These four methods are: A) Electricity is caused by an inductive electromagnetic current due to tossing a rare-earth magnet inside solenoids, B) Electricity is caused by the piezoelectric effect due to tensions among the car's structural components, specially in non-pneumatic tires and rings, C) Electricity is created by sounds and thermoacoustic effects, and D) Electricity is caused by differences in temperatures within the car set, in particular the exterior that suffers from a harsh weather by comparison to the interior with air-conditioning. Besides, the produced electricity of the shock absorbers will also be considered.
Hybrid Car System Using Electricity-Compressed Air The proposed car propulsion is a full hybrid  that uses electricity  and compressed-air . The purpose of choosing the compressed-air propulsion is to decrease the duty cycle of batteries that can be quickly charged in contrast with batteries, and provide a second green system if needed, to minimize having an absolute dependency on electricity to propel the car. Besides (a part of) excess produced electricity can be used to electrically compress the air in the proper tanks, in which the state of charge (SOC) for the lithium battery set would stay always about humidity of 65%  and a pleasant temperature of 5-25 degrees of Celsius for the batteries. Thus if there is no particular event, whenever the battery storage becomes less than the 65%, the electric propulsion would be deactivated and the compressed-air propulsion system starts acting smoothly and works for a while until new electricity would be obtained for the batteries; and whenever the SOC would be more than 65%, the stored and produced electricity starts compressing the air, instead of charging the batteries. The goal is to avoid fast charging the batteries as much as possible to let batteries live longer . Also, the battery packs and compressed-air tanks do cooperate with each other to ventilate themselves and provide a proper temperature for both. In particular in the harsh climates, insulating these components is a very important task .
On the other hand, to prevent having a high amount of hotness, the battery pack should be placed at a given distance from each other. See Fig. 2. The ovals represent tweels, the rectangles represent lithium-ion battery packs, and small circles represent the compressed-air tanks. The overall weight of the batteries must not be more than 200 kg, those are away from the sun-light and lessen the car center of gravity. A prime part of their air-conditioning is through the compressed-air tanks, which have been placed around them.
There is a similar situation for the compressed-air tanks. The schematic design of such a tank can be seen at Fig. 3: That "a" represents the exit point to the generator to charge the battery. It can also be used for ventilation, but maybe this task would be achieved with another separate exit point. The "b" represents the exit point to the engine cylinders to rotate the crankshaft. The opening and closing these hatches has to be managed by the car central computer and driver's decision. The "c1,c2,c3" are the enter holes of the air, by the foot operated pumps or electric compressors.
Apart from charging the tanks with the compressed-air in gas stations, repair shops and any center having a compressor. Those can be charged by two other ways: electrically or manually. In the electrical way, the excess of SOC of the batteries run one or two tiny compressors connected to every tank to send the compressed-air into the tanks.
In the manual way, one or two foot operated proper pumps, are put at back space of the third row of seats, in which passengers can pump the air tanks by them. This option can be very applicable for the buses. The related hoses connect to the tanks are with two phases; passengers could make a tight connection by their hands between the hose pumps and the first hatch of the tank by swirling, then the second hatch would be opened automatically by the driver's command. That is because the sudden opening of the first hatch, would never lose the air storage of the tanks. For example, if somebody kicks the bung of the first phase by accident, that bung of the second hatch which is under the driver's control, remains untouched in this two-layer protective system. Regarding the fact that the compressed-air is not obtained freely and easily at all, one needs to make sure none of its storage would be wasted.
The idea of several little tanks instead of one or two big tanks, can easily charge them with compressed-air to reach the proper pressure by the passengers and/or compressors; and if the air storage of the tanks would be lost for any reason, the damage would be reduced. All the passengers but driver can do this job. At least two hoses are required, one is long and can be used outdoors when the car is parked; the other is short and can be used in the interior of the car. Pumping the tanks is similar to pumping a bike tires; i.e., the air-flow can come in, but it cannot come out, except for the propulsion (or ventilation) and through a special hole. So connecting the pump to that, must not cause concerns of discharging the tank. This means if someone does not consider the idea of pumping the compressed-air tanks by his feet effective, he could not consider it useless neither. In the critical conditions, pumping the tanks can be a gradual procedure to give a contribution to propel the car. It would be little and slow compared to electrical compressors, but we assume it better than doing nothing. This possibility makes this car different from conventional cars which are useless when they run out of fuel.
To reduce the weight and possible danger of bursting, tanks can be made of a proper material, e.g., fiber glass, aerogel, or aluminum. Anyhow, the tanks should not become hot or cold quickly. Like the power source of the center for the supercapacitors management, the adjuster of the second hatch that connects a pump to the tank is one of the few components in this car which has a special small battery to use when none of the other batteries can be used. This should also remind the clock battery of the computers . Albeit if needed, these special small batteries can be charged in conjunction with other batteries. One can add a further application to fill the tanks: that can aid to make the battery packs (and even other required components such as motors and brakes) warm/cool while doing this action (pumping). Since there is a direct proportion between the pressure and temperature, if entering the air to the pumps, would somehow be in a relation with exiting the air from around the battery packs, which would be desired to cause increasing/decreasing the air pressure around the batteries and would cause the warmness/coldness around them in result. For adjusting the temperature around the batteries and supercapacitors packs, the thermoelectric effect can be applied too, it will be explained later. Although, using an air-cooling system  like in other cars  for the internal combustion engine, this notion can be used in this case too.
To generalize this idea to the vehicles such as a truck, pickup truck, minibus, and bus, big tanks can be considered. However, instead of mounting one or two big tanks under the body, a number of small tanks should be mounted in every possible point of the car, to be able to charge them separately, easily, and shortly. The weight of these tanks should not be destructive for the car propulsion. Also their arrangement toward other components should reduce the car center of gravity. If for any reason, the driver chooses a propulsion over the other system, that would be adopted. For example in a rainy weather, or in a hot weather, to protect the batteries until drying/cooling them by the air flow, the compressed-air propulsion may be used for most of the time; or in altitudes where the air density is rather low, the electric propulsion may be used for most of the time. Also, whenever it is needed to impose more power to the car, for example to pass an uphill or to come out of a pit, by fuzzy logic of the central computer or driver's decision, two propulsion systems jointly using electricity and compressed-air act in common and the car would suddenly take off . In this situation, all of the cylinders (4-12 numbers as a proposal) would be used to move the crankshaft, or electrically charge the batteries to pump a gross amount of power into the motors. Maybe even the devoted electricity to the air-condition would be appropriated to the propulsion for a few moments. Of course, the length and duration of this operation must be short and bearable to avoid any damage to this EV powertrain. When all the cylinders are active, we expect a lot of strength, and the compressed-air storage finishes fast; but in the usual situation, it might be good to deactivate some cylinders  sometimes to use the compressed-air storage with a less strength and slower motion, for a longer duration. In particular if something wrong happens to the batteries and they fail to work, we would have to apply only one system – compressed-air – propulsion. Herein, it is needed to use supercapacitors that give more contributions until being conveyed the car to the nearest repair shop.
If something wrong happens with the cylinders too, the emergency propulsion would be started; as a description, the produced electricity of the solar cells (specially if they are active in the night too [8, 36]), bio-force and physical effects, would not be conducted to the batteries and would get to the motors. Now this can be in two modes: A) Directly to the motor: This option is possible, if the amount of electricity is big and monotonous and it causes no technical problem for the motors, i.e, it would not burn the motor, totally or partially; and B) Indirectly to motor: It needs a control unit, rather small and light.
The program assumes the harvested electricity would be consumed by motor, after reaching to a specific threshold in definite cycles. For example, after 5 minutes trying the bio-force by pedaling, motors would go to a smooth path for 2 minutes, with the averaged velocity of 20 km/h, and if the gained electricity of physical effects and solar cells are alright, the passengers can rest about 2 minutes, after any 5 minutes of action for the bio-force electricity.
The emergency propulsion can also be used for the recreational and experimental conditions, or even giving a rest to the lithium batteries, supercapacitors, or compressed-air tanks, time to time. However, when all the tanks, batteries, and cylinders are failed, and there is a long distance to the repairing/charging center, then there is no help from other cars, the passengers can slowly propel the car, instead of waiting or walking in unpleasant weather.
If the road is smooth and sun shines well, strong passengers do pedal. Maybe the car reaches to higher velocities of 40 or 50 km/h. If the weight and dimensions of the emergency propulsion control unit are too large, its kit should be optional and removable. If somebody considers probable to use it, he mounts it easily, otherwise he leaves it at his home.
P.S: I'm glad I found here after a bit googling. It seems there are experts in here and I hope they would guide me how to proceed. Please note English is not my first language and if this category is not fit, I ask moderators to move this thread. Thanks already.
Last edited by mansouryar : 10-17-2011 at 08:55 AM.
Reason: better appearance, removing the twice paragraphs