Biogas is renewable energy's Cinderella

Discussion in 'Emissions' started by Carcus, Jul 30, 2012.

  1. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    It's taxed already.

    Federal is 18.3c/gge.
    http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/112/hr3832/text
     
  2. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

  3. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    Feds spend money on methane-to-liquid tech:

    http://www.greencarcongress.com/2012/11/arpae-20121128.html

    Bio2Electric, LLC Methane Converter to Electricity and Fuel. Bio2Electric will develop a small-scale reactor that converts natural gas into a liquid transportation fuel by combining fuel cell technology with advanced catalysts. Conventional large-scale gasto-liquid reactors produce waste-heat, reducing the energy efficiency of the process. In contrast, this reactor produces electricity as a byproduct of fuel production. If successful, this small-scale reactor could be deployed in remote locations to provide not only liquid fuel but also electricity, increasing the utility of geographically isolated gas reserves. $601,909

    Ceramatec, Inc. Natural Gas Reactor for Remote Chemical Conversion. Ceramatec, Inc. will develop a small-scale membrane reactor to convert natural gas into transportable liquids in one step. Many remote oil wells burn natural gas as a by-product because it is not economical to store or transport. Such natural gas contains energy that equals 20% of annual U.S. electricity production (5 quadrillion BTUs worldwide). Capturing this energy would reduce both waste and greenhouse gas emissions and could be deployed in remote areas to convert otherwise wasted gas into usable chemicals that can be transported to market. $1,734,665

    Gas Technology Institute Methane to Methanol Fuel: A Low Temperature Process The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) will develop a new process to convert natural gas into methanol and hydrogen. Current methods to produce liquid fuels from natural gas require large and expensive facilities that use significant amounts of energy. GTI’s process uses metal oxide catalysts that are continuously regenerated in a reactor, similar to a battery. This process operates at room temperature, is more energy efficient, and less capital-intensive than existing methods. $772,899

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology Small and Efficient Reformer for Converting Natural Gas to Liquid Fuels. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) will develop a compact reformer for natural gas. Reformers produce synthesis gas, the first step in the commercial process of converting natural gas to liquid fuels. Unlike other systems that are too large to be deployed remotely, MIT’s reformer could be used for small, remote sources of gas. $547,289

    Pratt & Whitney, Rocketdyne Turbo-POx For Ultra Low-Cost Gasoline. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne will develop a system to improve the conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels. Their approach would partially oxidize natural gas in the high-temperature, high-pressure combustor of a natural gas turbine, facilitating its conversion into a liquid fuel. This approach could simultaneously improve the efficiency of gas conversion into fuels and chemicals, generating electricity in the process. $3,796,189

    University of Colorado Atomic Layer Deposition for Creating Liquid Fuels from Natural Gas. The University of Colorado Boulder will use nanotechnology to improve the structure of gas-to-liquids catalysts, increasing surface area and improving heat transfer compared to current catalysts. The new structure of these catalysts would be used to create a small-scale reactor, for converting natural gas to liquid fuels, which could be located at remote sources of gas. $380,000

    University of Minnesota Flexible Molecular Sieve Membranes. The University of Minnesota will develop an ultra-thin separation membrane to improve the production of biofuels, plastics, and other industrial materials. Today’s separation methods are energy intensive and costly. If fully implemented by industry, such a new class of membranes could reduce US energy consumption by as much as 3%. $1,816,239

    University of Washington Biocatalyst for Small-Scale Conversion of Natural Gas into Diesel Fuel. The University of Washington will develop microbes that convert methane found in natural gas into liquid diesel fuel. These microbes enable small-scale gas-to-liquid conversion at lower cost than current methods, which require infrastructure that is too expensive to deploy at smaller scales. Small-scale conversion would leverage abundant, domestic natural gas resources and reduce US dependence on foreign oil. $4,000,000

    and lots of other interesting grants..
     
  4. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

  5. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    175 years of Natural Gas ,...... and then what?


    Volkswagen eco up!
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KEGBVnIKuDw

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HudrPxZNbmg



    "Global natural gas reserves are estimated to be 525,000 billion m3 (as of 2009) and around 3,000 billion m3 of that amount is extracted annually. So, natural gas is finite as well. This makes a forecast by Berlin-based organisation dena related to the German market for natural gas vehicles for the year 2020 that much more important: “Even if the cited 4 per cent goal is reached, all natural gas vehicles could theoretically be powered with pure biomethane by the year 2020.”

    By mid-2011, there were already 57 biomethane plants in Germany, which fed 64,000 standard cubic metres (std. m3/h) into the natural gas network per hour. Today, biomethane is blended at one-fourth of the available natural gas refilling stations in Germany; in addition, nearly 100 stations already offer pure biomethane. This number is the most of any country in the world. One of the technical leaders among producers of sustainably obtained biomethane in Germany is Verbio AG (Leipzig). The company specialises in producing biomethane from material such as manure, animal waste, biological wastes and straw – renewable sources that do not complete with food production. The company has developed a new type of bio-refinery that produces biomethane exclusively from stillage, a waste product of bioethanol production, and straw. Another way of obtaining gas from renewable materials has been practiced since early 2012: biomethane production from nothing other than straw. Verbio AG is the first company in the world to succeed at this. "

    https://www.volkswagen-media-servic..._point__the.standard.gid-oeffentlichkeit.html
     
    Last edited: Jan 16, 2013
  6. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

  7. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    electrics!.. surprised you had to ask
     
  8. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    What we've got here is..failure, to communicate.
     
  9. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    I'm sure batteries will have improved by then, why mess around with methane when you can refuel at home?.. electricity will be made from lots of different things.

    "The Windup Girl", a science-fiction novel, predicts we will use advanced springs to power cars in the future.. winding them up is not easy. The rich class rides around in bio-methane powered limos.
     
  10. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    I'm sure cng tanks will have improved by then, why mess around with electricity when you can refuel at home?.. Biogas will be made from lots of different things.



    "No American soldier has ever served on foreign soil to bring methane to this country"
     
  11. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    news on GTL, another project:

    http://www.greencarcongress.com/2013/01/g2x-20130118.html

    "Lake Charles natural gas to gasoline facility. G2X plans to build a $1.3-billion natural gas-to-gasoline facility at The Port of Lake Charles in Southwest Louisiana.

    G2X Energy is finalizing an option to lease 200 acres in the Industrial Canal at the Port of Lake Charles where the company will have the flexibility of shipping gasoline by pipeline or sea. G2X Energy will build its facility near Trunkline LNG, a major energy tenant operating at the port. T

    G2X Energy will use natural gas to produce methanol, then convert methanol to final gasoline for 90% of its production. About 10% of the output will be liquefied petroleum gas, or propane.

    Subject to additional feasibility analysis, Houston-based G2X Energy expects to make a final investment decision by the end of 2013, upon obtaining facility permits, and construction would begin in 2014 followed by estimated completion of the project in early 2017. Hiring of the plant management team will take place in mid- to late 2014, with most of the hiring for the facility to be completed by the end of 2015.

    Pampa Fuels methanol plant. Separately, G2X broke ground for its Pampa, Texas-based methanol plant—Pampa Fuels.

    Located on a brownfield site previously owned by Celanese Chemical and utilizing some existing operational equipment, the Pampa Fuels facility represents a modern example of reusing existing industrial infrastructure to lower capital cost for the production high-value fuels and chemicals.

    The facility will produce approximately 65,000 metric tons of finished product annually to meet growing regional demand in North Texas and Oklahoma. Full-scale production is expected to begin in 2014."

    A neat picture of how the catalyst makes gasoline out of methanol:

    [​IMG]
     
  12. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    ......and about 1/2 of the natural gas energy is lost in the conversion.

    Booooo.
     
  13. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    Yes it wastes energy, but it is plentiful now..

    That catalyst is neat, it makes 10 carbon chains automatically, sulfur free and 92 octane.. probably expensive as heck.
     
  14. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d2d2e83c-6721-11e2-a805-00144feab49a.html#axzz2JER6ohhV

    Shale gas boom now visible from space

    "Oil companies at the heart of the US shale oil boom are burning off enough gas to power all the homes in Chicago and Washington combined in a practice causing growing concern about the waste of resources and damage to the environment.

    The volume of unwanted gas being flared off in North Dakota, the state leading the shale revolution transforming the outlook for US energy, rose about 50 per cent last year. The surge at the state’s Bakken formation is being replicated in other shale regions with the Texas state regulator issuing 1,963 permits to flare in 2012, more than six times the number of 306 in 2010.

    The rapid increase has made the US one of the world’s worst countries for gas flaring. The volume of gas flared in the US has tripled in just five years, according to World Bank estimates and is now fifth highest in the world, behind Russia, Nigeria, Iran and Iraq.

    The flaring is a result, in large part, of the low price of natural gas in North America, which can make it uneconomic to build pipelines and tanks to handle the gas released by oil production. Flaring is often the safest way to dispose of it.

    The lights of the flares burning in the Bakken and Texas’ Eagle Ford shale fields can clearly be seen in night-time satellite photography."
     
  15. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    Looking at my gas bill today ....


    The way I 'cipher it, my natural gas supplier is charging me right at 73 cents per gge. Add another nickel for the electricity to compress it into a cng tank in my pickup, .... I'd be paying under 80 cents per gallon. ...... IF I was so equipped.

    That would be sooooo much better than flaring.



    /gasoline is at $3.30 per gallon here today. So my pickup would be returning a cost equivalent of 86 mpg on home compressed cng.
     
  16. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    Biomethane Fuel Gains Ground in Germany
    March 31, 2013 | Germany

    Share of biomethane in natural gas fuel has more than doubled since 2012

    In the past year, the share of biomethane in natural gas fuel has risen in Germany from 6 to over 15 percent, according to Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena) – the German Energy Agency. The renewable natural gas alternative is already available at one out of every three natural gas filling stations.

    “The current figures are proof that biomethane can make a substantial contribution towards clean mobility based on domestic energy. However, we must concede that the full potential of biomethane cannot be tapped until more drivers change over to natural gas-fuelled cars,”



    http://www.ngvglobal.com/biomethane-fuel-gains-ground-in-germany-0331
     
  17. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    is bio-methane production subsidized in Germany and how much?.. why not burn that German bio-methane to produce electricity?, no need to wait until drivers adopt it.
     
  18. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    Biogas Upgrading and Utilization
    http://www.iea-biogas.net/_download/publi-task37/Biogas upgrading.pdf

    (20 pg pdf)


    Presuming you'd use the electricity for BEV transportation, it's arguable that just using methane in an efficient piston engined car would be more efficient than biogas-electric generator-grid-BEV ... conversion losses, line losses and all. Methane fueled cars would also have the advantage of quicker refueling and be more resilient to temperature extremes and father time versus a battery driven vehicle.

    Another bonus for germany is that bio-methane can help stabilize their "mother-effin-russia" dominated natural gas grid.
     
    Last edited: Apr 2, 2013
  19. Carcus

    Carcus Well-Known Member

    It's not a modified Delorean, ... it's a "back to the future Cinderella story" -- French trucker style:

    _______________________________________________

    "Global retailer Carrefour is testing its first lorries running on biomethane fuel produced using waste from its stores. Run in partnership with GNVERT, a subsidiary of the GDF SUEZ Group, haulage company Perrenot and manufacturing company Iveco, these vehicles will be making deliveries to around fifteen Carrefour stores in the Lille region of France.

    Biowaste produced by hypermarkets (rotten fruit and vegetables, pastries, meat waste, plant waste, etc.) is recovered and then processed in a methanisation plant which transforms it into biogas. This biogas is then purified and transformed into fuel biomethane before being sent out to the service stations that make up the GNVERT network. It is then used to power Carrefour delivery vehicles.

    Using this innovative new process, around fifteen Carrefour hypermarkets in the Lille region will now be supplied by 3 biomethane-powered lorries. The scheme – currently in its test phase – will mean deliveries made to stores are carbon neutral: by recycling their biowaste, the stores will succeed in being energy-efficient as far as having goods deliveries are concerned."



    Carrefour Rolls Out First Biomethane Lorries
    http://www.ngvglobal.com/26346-0331
     
    Last edited: Apr 4, 2013
  20. herm

    herm Well-Known Member

    I read recently that France is doing a big push on bio-methane.. but I cant remember where I saw it..
     

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