Thousands Killed in Aftermath of Japan Earthquake

Discussion in 'In the News' started by xcel, Mar 11, 2011.

  1. Tochatihu

    Tochatihu Well-Known Member

    Probably some disaster fatigue has overcome this thread. However, w/in the last 24, the radioactivity of the water entering the ocean has increased enormously. It may be that they can no longer control water at all. We have to hope that will be temporary.

    Good luck to Fukushima workers.
     
  2. ILAveo

    ILAveo Well-Known Member

    The info provided by the media was that they were releasing a bunch of "low level" radioactive waste water to make room for storage of more highly contaminated water.

    What "low level" means in this context could be consistent with your observations?

    I'm unaware of the treatment options for the contaminants they are dealing with, so maybe they really do have to dump it?

    They didn't seem to be thinking about containment earlier when they were water bombing the reactors, so I'm sure they have a hell of a mess.
     
  3. phoebeisis

    phoebeisis Well-Known Member

    The water- on TV- seemed to be gushing out a pipe into the ocean?

    There must be some compelling reason why they can't just pump that water into a tanker, and haul it out to the deep ocean- instead of just letting it settle directly offshore where-I guess- some of their shell fish?? comes from ?

    Now most of the radioactive " stuff" is very short half life- Iodine??- but some is very long half life Plutonium and Uranium ??

    Haul it to the deep ocean- open the pet cocks-japan must have plenty of old tankers??
    Charlie
     
  4. Tochatihu

    Tochatihu Well-Known Member

    The maximum measured concentration in sea was 'millions' but that did not last long. That was apparently 'fugitive' water, not from the designated releases.

    Land storage is an option only if you have tank volume, and Fukushia doesn't. This leaves ocean release (underway) and extracting radionuclides from water with ion-exchange resins, and then doing something with the (radioactive) resins. I have read that IE resins are being delivered.

    yes, ocean 'dilution/solution' has been proposed over the decades for many things including unwanted isotopes. Two problems are ocean upwelling (the deep water diesn't stay there) and bioconcentration (marine food webs). It scarcely if ever rises to the top of any list when hazardous disposal is the topic.
    DAS
     
    Last edited: Apr 7, 2011
  5. msirach

    msirach Well-Known Member

    The saga continues. Another earthquake (7.4) occurred last night. Here are updates from CNN:

     
  6. ILAveo

    ILAveo Well-Known Member

    Interesting that they're trying on site water treatment--seems like they will have a bunch of different chemistries to figure out. Even with the simple stuff I occasionally work with sometimes it takes a while to get the system dialed in.

    Deep injection wells are regularly used for other sorts of liquid "special" waste, I don't know if the geology of the Fukishima would permit those.
     
  7. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    A bit more encouraging although this was released just before the latest 7.1...

    Toyota To Resume Vehicle Production At All Japan Plants From April 18-27

    As Toyota continues to address its production situation in Japan following the March 11 Great East Japan Earthquake, it has decided it will produce vehicles at all its Japanese vehicle-production facilities from April 18 to April 27. Production volume is planned to be approximately 50 percent of normal. Afterward, all production facilities will enter their annual spring holiday through May 10. A decision on post-holiday production will be made after assessing the parts supply situation. This development follows production resumed on March 28 at TMC’s Tsutsumi Plant in Aichi Prefecture and at Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. in Fukuoka Prefecture, as well as a planned production restart on April 11 at Central Motor Co., Ltd.’s Sagamihara Plant in Kanagawa Prefecture.

    Wayne
     
  8. Tochatihu

    Tochatihu Well-Known Member

    It is unclear to me as well how ion-exchange resins would be effective if the isotopes are dissolved in seawater. Unless they have some special product, the sodium and chloride ions should fill almost all the 'parking spaces'.

    Yes the intentional water releases to ocean have all been relatively low contaminated. But normal ops there and elewhere, are no releases at all via that pathway.

    We need to get to the next stage on this - stable cores and 'spent' pools and all water storages stable. Then we can find out the plan for the three partially melted cores. The current location seems to be not well suited for entombment.

    DAS
     
  9. phoebeisis

    phoebeisis Well-Known Member

    They would have to use some sort of reverse osmosis type filter- like the ones used to convert sea water into drinking water.


    Of course, they could distill off the water- should be easy enough if they could get one of those reactors "working"-they would have plenty of energy.

    Easiest just to dump it at sea- keep it away from useful seafood- dump it in the deep ocean. Sink a tanker- blow it apart-the heavy long lived isotopes-plutonium, Uranium will sink to the bottom-the short lived stuff- who cares?
     
  10. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    Latest on Toyota’s North American Production...

    Toyota is adjusting North American production due to parts availability following the March 11 Japan earthquake.

    Over the next few weeks, Toyota’s North American vehicle plants will operate on a reduced schedule, with production suspended on April 15, 18, 21, 22, and 25. Most of the company’s North American engine and component plants will follow the same schedule. Future production plans will be determined at a later date.

    On these non-production days, the company will continue to provide employment for its approximately 25,000 regular North American team members. Team members not required to work may report to work for training and plant improvement activities, use vacation, or take unpaid time off.

    On average, around 85 percent of the parts and materials for the 12 North American-built Toyota and Lexus models are sourced from 500 suppliers on this continent. While production of some parts and materials continues in Japan, Toyota is working closely with affected suppliers in order to minimize the impact.

    “The situation in Japan affects many automakers and many other industries. Extraordinary efforts are underway to help suppliers recover,” said Steve St. Angelo, executive vice president of Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America. “We are slowing down to conserve parts yet maintain production as much as possible. We appreciate the flexibility of our team members, suppliers and dealers as we work through these issues.”

    The Georgetown, Ky. plant will build vehicles on April 21.

    Wayne
     
  11. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    Japan production:

    Toyota To Resume Vehicle Production At All Japan Plants From April 18-27

    As Toyota continues to address its production situation in Japan following the March 11 Great East Japan Earthquake, it has decided it will produce vehicles at all its Japanese vehicle-production facilities from April 18 to April 27. Production volume is planned to be approximately 50 percent of normal. Afterward, all production facilities will enter their annual spring holiday through May 9. A decision on post-holiday production will be made after assessing the parts supply situation. This development follows production resumed on March 28 at TMC’s Tsutsumi Plant in Aichi Prefecture and at Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. in Fukuoka Prefecture, as well as a planned production restart on April 11 at Central Motor Co., Ltd.’s Sagamihara Plant in Kanagawa Prefecture.

    Wayne
     
  12. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    Latest update from Honda regarding its North American Operations as of yesterday:

    Honda announced that temporary levels of reduced production will be extended one week through the week of April 18-22. We anticipate that additional production adjustments will continue after that date.

    Honda is making every effort to return to full production as soon as possible. At the same time, we remain focused on minimizing the impact to associates and their families. Honda plans no layoffs at any of its North American facilities.

    European Production Update(s)

    Reduced Volume Production at Honda of the UK Manufacturing

    To follow is an update on the impact of the major earthquake on Honda's operations.

    Following the 11 March earthquake and tsunami in Japan, Honda suspended automobile and component part production in Japan. On 31 March, Honda announced that automobile production at Suzuka and Sayama Factories would resume from 11 April, with production and shipment of component parts resuming on 4 April.

    However, as the parts supply situation remains unstable; production of component parts and vehicles at Honda plants will resume at approximately 50% of the original production plan.

    Honda of the UK Manufacturing (HUM) - The vast majority of the automotive parts for cars produced at HUM are sourced in Europe. However, for global efficiency, a number of parts continue to be supplied from Japan. The interruption of supply of these parts will impact production activity at HUM.

    HUM production volume will continue at approximately 50% of the planned weekly level from 11 April. By taking this action, HUM will be able to continue production by utilizing HUM's flexible working policy; pay is maintained for all Associates. Once full production is resumed the reduced volume production will be quickly recovered using the banked hours.

    Ken Keir, Executive Vice President, Honda Motor Europe:
    As parts supply stabilizes and full production resumes, Honda will quickly develop a production schedule to meet the needs of Honda's European customers.

    Japanese Production Update

    This is the outline of a report on the recovery status of Honda facilities, which was delivered by Takanobu Ito, President & CEO of Honda Motor Co., Ltd. on April 8, at the Honda R&D Co., Ltd. Automobile R&D Center.
    • In the Tochigi prefecture, there are many Honda facilities including the Automobile R&D Center, an office for the purchasing division, a parts plant and Honda Engineering Co., Ltd., which develops production technologies. Shortly after the earthquake, I rode my motorcycle to visit each of these facilities to check the level of damage. With fallen ceilings and walls and other damage, none of these facilities were in a condition to resume operations immediately. I realized it would not be an easy effort to recover these facilities.

    • The purchasing division, whose head office in Tochigi was damaged, set up an emergency satellite office within Saitama Factory and began checking situation all of our suppliers including second and third tier suppliers and investigating the impact of the earthquake on the parts supply. Associates at the purchasing division are pursuing the necessary measures for every single part that was impacted toward the recovery of overall parts supply.

    • The Automobile R&D Center set up satellite offices within the plants and other offices as it will take some time to restore its building and facility. After establishing a telecommunications network infrastructure at each office, the team resumed development operations on March 28. The development of mass-production models requires a lot of coordinated work with production plants; therefore, in hindsight, I am expecting that the team will be able to work more efficiently by being close to the production site.

    • In the three weeks since the earthquake, we have worked to achieve the ability to resume our operations and we will resume production of finished units of automobiles at the Saitama and Suzuka factories on April 11. This means all Honda production plants in Japan will be in operation as of that date. However, as the parts supply situation remains fluid, production of component parts and vehicles in Japan will be at approximately 50% of the original production plan for the time being, and we have reduced production volume at some plants outside of Japan.

    • We will strive to get back to normal operation as soon as possible by stabilizing the parts supply while also considering other options including changing the model mix at some production plants. We will also bring the pace of automobile development back to where it was before the earthquake by using R&D facilities in Tochigi as they are ready to resume operations, as well as the temporary satellite offices.

    • The other day, I visited affected suppliers and dealers in Tohoku and saw them working hard day and night to resume their operations under conditions beyond my imagination. We will devote ourselves to support our suppliers and dealers to resume their stable parts production and services to our customers as soon as possible.

    • We, the Honda Group, will go all out to overcome this difficult time and recover our business as soon as possible, which will also be a contribution to the recovery of the Japanese economy as well.
    Wayne
     
  13. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    A few updates from the IAEA while I was in San Diego…

    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 5, 2011 @ 20:25 UTC

    Japan Begins Discharge of Low Level Radioactive Water

    Japanese authorities have confirmed to the IAEA that they began to discharge 12,880 tons of low level radioactive water from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant into the sea on 4 April. The operation is being conducted to create storage capacity for highly radioactive water that has pooled in parts of the reactor facility, hindering efforts to restore electrical power from the grid to the facility.

    Japanese officials have reported that they plan to release 11,200 tons of water from a waste treatment facility and 1,680 tons from drainage pits around reactor Units 5 and 6. The operation is expected to last no more than five days.

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    Fukushima Nuclear Accident Update - April 6, 2011 @ 15:15 UTC

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that TEPCO has been authorized to begin injection of nitrogen into the primary containment vessel (PCV) of Unit 1 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Injection of nitrogen is intended to displace oxygen inside the containment vessel, thereby reducing a risk of explosion due to the combustible combination of hydrogen and oxygen.

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    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 6, 2011 @ 14:00 UTC

    The IAEA provided the following information on the current status of nuclear safety in Japan:

    1. Current Situation

    Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant remains very serious.

    TEPCO has identified a possible leakage path from the Turbine building of Unit 2 to the sea via a series of trenches/tunnels used to provide power to the sea water intake pumps and supply of service water to the reactor and turbine buildings. On 4 April, a tracer was used in an attempt to determine where the water was coming from. The tracer was also injected into two new bore holes that had been drilled near the pit. On 5 April it was confirmed that the tracer was seen leaking from the crack into the sea. Coagulation agents (liquid glass) were injected into the holes drilled around the pits to block leakage of water. It was reported that the leakage has currently stopped at 20:38 UTC on 5 April. Work continues to prevent further releases to the sea.

    According to the TEPCO Press Release of 4 April, approximately 10000 T of water from the radioactive waste treatment plant and 1500 T of subsurface waters stored in the sub drain pits of Unit 5 and 6 are being discharged to the sea to provide room to store water with higher levels of radioactivity in a safer manner. The discharges started at 10:00 UTC and 12:00 UTC respectively on 4 April. TEPCO has estimated that these discharges would increase the effective dose to a member of the public by 0.6 mSv, if he/she were to eat seaweed and seafood from the discharge area every day for a year. It should be noted however that the movements of all ships, including fishing boats, are restricted within a 30km zone from the NPP, based on the hazardous area set by the Maritime Safety Agency. Also, Fukushima prefecture reported that no fishing has started beyond a 18-mile zone from the NPP in this prefecture.

    In Unit 1 fresh water is being continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. Fresh water is being injected continuously into the RPVs through the fire extinguisher lines in Units 2 and 3 at indicated rates of 8 m3/h and 7 m3/h respectively using a temporary electric pump with off-site power.

    In Unit 1 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV decreased from 234 °C to 222 °C and at the bottom of RPV stable at 115 °C. Instrumentation "B" for Reactor Pressure indicates that the pressure in the RPV is increasing and instrumentation "A" indicates that it has stabilized. NISA has indicated that some instruments in the reactor vessel may not be working properly. Drywell pressure is stable. In Unit 2 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is stable at 141 °C. The temperature at the bottom of RPV was not reported. Indicated Drywell pressure remains at atmospheric pressure. The indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV in Unit 3 is stable at 85 °C and at the bottom of the RPV is about 115 °C.

    Additional water was injected via Spent Fuel Cooling System line to the spent fuel pool in Unit 2 by a temporary pump on 4 April.

    Power is available to instrumentation in Unit 3.

    There has been no change in status on Units 4, 5, 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility.

    2. Radiation Monitoring

    On 5 April, low levels of deposition of both iodine-131 and cesium-137 were detected in 5 and 7 prefectures respectively. The values for iodine-131 ranged from 12 to 70, for cesium-137 from 3.6 to 41 becquerel per square meter.

    Gamma dose rates reported for 6 April showed no significant changes compared to yesterday. Since 23 March, values have tended to decrease. Gamma dose rates were reported for 45 prefectures to be between 0.02 to 0.1 microsievert per hour. In one prefecture the gamma dose rate was 0.16 microsievert per hour. These values are within or slightly above the natural background of 0.1 microsievert per hour.

    As of 4 April, iodine-131 and cesium-134/137 was detectable in drinking water in a few prefectures. All values were far below levels that would initiate recommendations for restrictions of drinking water. As of 6 April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) remains in place as a precautionary measure in only one village of the Fukushima prefecture.

    On 6 April the IAEA monitoring team made measurements at 7 locations at distances of 23 to 39 km South and Southwest of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. The dose rates ranged from 0.04 to 2.2 microsievert per hour. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.03 to 0.36 megabecquerel per square meter.

    Since our written briefing of yesterday, data related to food contamination was reported on 5 April by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. These reported analytical results covered a total of 41 samples taken on 24 March (1 sample), 30 March (1 sample), 1 April (1 sample), 2 April (9 samples) and 4 April (29 samples). Analytical results for 40 of the 41 samples for various vegetables, spinach and other leafy vegetables, fruit (strawberries), chicken, poultry eggs, unprocessed raw milk and seafood in eight prefectures (Chiba, Fukushima, Gunma, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Saitama and Tokyo) indicated that iodine-131, caesium-134 and/or caesium-137 were either not detected or were below the regulation values set by the Japanese authorities. One sample of seafood (sand lance) taken on 4 April (offshore) in Ibaraki prefecture was above the regulation value set by the Japanese authorities for caesium-134/caesium-137.

    TEPCO is responsible for near-shore sampling, taking samples of surface seawater. The near shore sampling point for Daiichi Units 1 - 4 is located 330 m south of their common discharge point. The near-shore sampling point for Daiichi Units 5 and 6 is located 30 m north of their common discharge point.

    Samples near discharge areas are collected daily. Until 3 April a general decreasing trend was observed. However, after the discharge of contaminated water at 4 April, an increase from about 11 kBq/l at 09:00 UTC to 41 kBq/l at 14:00 UTC for I-131, and from 5.1 kBq/l at 09:00 UTC to 19 kBq/l for both, Cs-134 and Cs-137 at 14:00 UTC was detected.

    There were no new data for off shore monitoring compared to yesterday's briefing.

    **************

    Update on Fukushima Nuclear Accident (April 6, 2011 @ 08:15 UTC

    Leakage of Highly Contaminated Water Into Sea

    According to Japanese authorities, the leak of highly contaminated water from the cable storage pit located next to the Unit 2 inlet point at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has stopped as of 20:38 UTC on 5 April. Workers had employed measures to stop the flow of water directly to the sea since 2 April, when the leak was first observed.

    On 2 April, concrete was poured into the pit in an attempt to stop the water leakage to the ocean, but no significant decrease in leakage was observed.

    From 4:47 to 5:30 UTC on 3 April, the top of the trench was broken open and polymer was poured into the trench to stop the leakage of water, but this measure was not successful.

    Approximately 13 kg of liquid tracer was injected into the pit at 22:08 UTC 3 April. The tracer was also injected into two new bore holes that had been drilled near the pit. At 4:15 UTC, 5 April it was confirmed that the tracer was seen leaking from the crack into the sea.

    At 6:07 UTC, 5 April coagulation agents (liquid glass) were injected into the holes drilled around the pits. The leakage was reported to have ceased at 20:38 UTC on April 5. Work continues to prevent further releases to the sea.

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    New earthquake in Japan - April, 7 @ 17:30 UTC

    The IAEA confirms that an earthquake occurred in Japan at 14:32 UTC 7 April. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre has rated it as a 7.1 magnitude, revised from an initial 7.4 magnitude. The epicenter of the earthquake was 20 km from the Onagawa nuclear power plant and approximately 120 km from the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants.

    The IAEA has been in contact with NISA and can confirm the status of the following nuclear facilities:

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    NISA confirms that no changes have been observed at the on-site radiation monitoring posts. The injection of water into the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1, 2 and 3 was not interrupted.

    Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant

    NISA confirms that no changes have been observed of the readings at the on-site radiation monitoring posts.

    Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant

    All reactors have been in cold shutdown since the 11 March earthquake.

    NISA has confirmed that two out of the three lines supplying off-site power to the site were lost following the 7 April earthquake. Off-site power continues to be supplied through the third line.

    Cooling of the spent fuel pool was temporarily lost, but has subsequently been restored.

    No change has been observed in the readings from the on-site radiation monitoring post. The status of the plant is currently being checked.

    Tokai Daini Nuclear Power Plant

    Tokai Daini nuclear power plant remains in cold shutdown since the 11 March earthquake. No abnormality has been observed.

    Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant

    NISA has confirmed that the Higashidori NPP was shutdown and in a maintenance outage at the time of the 7 April earthquake. Off-site power has been lost. Emergency power supply to the site is operating. All the fuel had been removed from the reactor core and stored in the spent fuel pool. Cooling of the spent fuel pool is operational.

    Tomari Nuclear Power Plant (in Hokkaido)

    At the time of the 7 April earthquake Tomari Unit 1 and Unit 2 were in operation. Following the 7 April earthquake, the Hokkaido Electric Power Company reduced the generating power to 90% of capacity.

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    NISA confirms that Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant and uranium enrichment facility lost off-site power. Emergency power supply to the site is operating.

    The IAEA will issue further information as soon as it becomes available.

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    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 7, 2011 @ 18:00 UTC

    1. Current Situation
    Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant remains very serious although there are early signs of recovery in some functions such as electrical power and instrumentation.

    On 6th April it was reported that the leakage of water from the sidewall of the pit closest to the sea has stopped after coagulation agents (liquid glass) were injected into the holes drilled around the pits. Work continues to prevent further releases to the sea.

    According to the TEPCO Press Release of 4th April, approximately 10,000 T of water from the radioactive waste treatment plant and 1,500 T of subsurface waters stored in the sub drain pits of Unit 5 and 6 are being discharged to the sea to provide room to store water with higher levels of radioactivity in a safer manner. TEPCO has estimated that these discharges would increase the effective dose to a member of the public by 0.6 mSv, if he/she were to eat seaweed and seafood from 1 km from the discharge point every day for a year. It should be noted however that the movements of all ships, including fishing boats, are restricted within a 30km zone from the NPP.

    In Unit 1 fresh water is being continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through the feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. Fresh water is being injected continuously into the RPVs through the fire extinguisher lines in Units 2 and 3 at indicated rates of 8 m3/h and 7 m3/h respectively using a temporary electric pump with off-site power.

    As of 6th April, TEPCO started injecting nitrogen gas to Unit 1 containment vessel to provide an inerted atmosphere to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel.

    On Unit 1 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 224oC and at the bottom of RPV it is 117oC. Instrumentation ‘B’ for Reactor Pressure indicates that the pressure in the RPV is increasing and instrumentation ‘A’ indicates that it has stabilized. NISA has indicated that some instruments in the reactor vessel may not be working properly. Drywell pressure has increased slightly due to the injection of nitrogen. In Unit 2 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is stable at 143oC. The temperature at the bottom of RPV was not reported. Indicated Drywell pressure remains at atmospheric pressure. The indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV in Unit 3 is 88oC and at the bottom of RPV is about 115oC.

    Additional water was injected via the Spent Fuel Cooling System line to the spent fuel pool by a temporary pump on 4th April.

    There has been no change in status on Units 4, 5, 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    2. Radiation monitoring

    On 6th April, low levels of deposition of both I-131 and Cs-137 were detected in 4 and 6 prefectures respectively. The values reported for I-131 ranged from 3.4 to 10 becquerels per square meter, for Cs-137 from 4.9 to 19 becquerels per square meter. Gamma dose rates continue decreasing . There is no significant change in gamma dose rates reported for 6th April compared to yesterday.

    As of 5th April, I-131 and Cs-134/137 was detectable in drinking water in a small number of prefectures. All values were well below levels that would initiate recommendations for restrictions of drinking water. As of 6th April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) is in place as a precautionary measure in only one village of the Fukushima prefecture.

    TEPCO is responsible for near-shore sampling, taking samples of surface seawater. Samples near discharge areas are collected daily. Until 3rd April a general decreasing trend was observed. However, after the discharge of contaminated water at 4th April, an increase from about 11 kBq/l as measured at 09:00 to 41 kBq/l at 14:00 for I-131; from 5.1 kBq/l at 09:00 to 19 kBq/l for both, Cs-134 and Cs-137 at 14:00 was recorded. On the 5th April a decrease was observed as compared to the previous day, with seawater concentration of 5 kBq/l for Cs-137 and 11 kBq/l for I-131.

    Since 4th April TEPCO added 3 new sampling points 15 km offshore, in addition to the already established 3 sampling points at the same distance, this resulting in a total of 6 sampling points situated along a north-south transect at a distance of 15 km from the coast.

    Levels of radionuclides reported at these locations for the 5th of April are in the range 57 – 200 Bq/l for I-131, 18 - 310 Bq/l for Cs-134 and 18 – 320 Bq/l for Cs-137.

    There were no new data for 18 mile off shore monitoring, carried out under the responsibility of MEXT, compared to yesterday’s briefing.

    On 6th April the marine expert from the IAEA Environment Laboratories Monaco completed his mission in Japan. From the 2nd to 4th April he embarked on the research vessel MIRAI to observe the sampling conducted 30 km offshore. He visited the JAEA laboratory in Tokai where the gamma spectrometric analyses are performed. He briefed representatives of the Japanese Government.

    Since our written briefing of yesterday, data related to food contamination were reported on 6th April by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. These reported analytical results covered a total of 78 samples taken on 3rd April (2 samples), 4th April (39 samples), 5th April (35 samples) and 6th April (2 samples). Analytical results for 52 of the 78 samples for various vegetables, spinach and other leafy vegetables, fruit (strawberry) and unprocessed raw milk in eight prefectures (Fukushima, Gunma, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Saitama and Yamagata) indicated that I-131, Cs-134 and/or Cs-137 were either not detected or were below the regulation values set by the Japanese authorities. However, it was reported that analytical results for 26 of the total 41 samples taken in Fukushima prefecture for various vegetables, spinach and other leafy vegetables indicated that I-131 and/or Cs-134/Cs-137 exceeded the regulation values set by the Japanese authorities.

    On 5th April, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare issued a press release indicating that a new provisional regulation value was set for I-131 at a limit of 2000 Bq/kg in fishery products.

    As of 4th April, food restrictions (distribution and/or consumption) are in place in four prefectures (Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma) and in certain locations in Chiba prefecture (Katori City, Tako Town and Asahi City).

    In Fukushima, there are restrictions on the consumption of leafy vegetables, headed and non-headed leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach, komatsuna, cabbage), and flower-headed brassicas (broccoli, cauliflower). There are also restrictions on the distribution of headed and non-headed leafy vegetables, flower-headed brassicas (including turnips), spinach, kakina and unprocessed raw milk produced in the prefecture.

    In Ibaraki, there are restrictions on the distribution of unprocessed raw milk, parsley, spinach and kakina produced in the prefecture.

    In Chiba, there are restrictions on the distribution of spinach produced in Katori City and Tako Town. There are also restrictions on the distribution of spinach, chingensai, shungiku, sanchu, celery and parsley produced in Asahi City.

    In Gunma and Tochigi, there are restrictions on the distribution of spinach and kakina produced in these prefectures.

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    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident – April 8, 2011 @ 15:00 UTC

    Earthquake of 7th April

    The IAEA confirms that an earthquake occurred in Japan at 14:32 UTC 7th April. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre has rated it as a 7.1 magnitude, revised from an initial 7.4 magnitude. The epicenter of the earthquake was 12.4 miles from the Onagawa nuclear power plant and approximately 75 miles from the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants.

    The IAEA has been in contact with NISA and can confirm the status of the following nuclear facilities:

    Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    No changes have been observed at the on-site radiation monitoring posts. The injection of water into the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1, 2 and 3 was not interrupted.

    Fukushima Daini NPP

    No changes have been observed of the readings at the on-site radiation monitoring posts.

    Onagawa NPP

    All reactors have been in cold shutdown since the 11th March earthquake.

    Two out of the three lines supplying off-site power to the site were lost following the 7th April earthquake. Off-site power continues to be supplied through the third line.

    Cooling of the spent fuel pool was temporarily lost, but has subsequently been restored.

    No change has been observed in the readings from the on-site radiation monitoring post. The status of the plant is currently being checked.

    Tokai Daini NPP

    Tokai Daini nuclear power plant remains in cold shutdown since the 11th March earthquake. No abnormality has been observed.

    Higashidori NPP

    The Higashidori NPP was shut down and in a maintenance outage at the time of the 7th April earthquake. Off-site power was lost temporarily. Emergency power supply to the site operated as expected until off-site power was restored. All the fuel had been removed from the reactor core and stored in the spent fuel pool. Cooling of the spent fuel pool is operational.

    Tomari NPP (in Hokkaido)

    At the time of the 7th April earthquake Tomari Unit 1 and Unit 2 were in operation. Following the 7th April earthquake, the Hokkaido Electric Power Company reduced the generating power to 90% of capacity.

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant and uranium enrichment facility lost off-site power. Emergency power supply to the site is operating.

    2. Current Situation

    Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant remains very serious although there are early signs of recovery in some functions such as electrical power and instrumentation.

    As of 6th April, TEPCO started injecting nitrogen gas to Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel.

    The leakage of highly contaminated water from the 20 cm crack in the cable storage pit of Unit 2 directly to the sea reported on 2 April was stopped by injection of coagulation agents (liquid glass) on 5th April. Additional activities to secure the leak were reported finished on 6th April.

    To prevent discharge of contaminated water from the Fukushima Plant to the open sea, construction work was carried out at the breakwater in the southern part of the Plant on 5th April.

    In Unit 1 fresh water has been continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. In Units 2 and 3 fresh water is being injected into the reactor pressure vessels continuously through the fire extinguisher lines at indicated rates of 8 m3/h and 7 m3/h using temporary electric pumps with off-site power.

    The reactor pressure vessels’ temperatures remain above cold shutdown conditions (normally less than 95oC). In Unit 1 indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 224oC and at the bottom of RPV is 117oC. The pressure in the RPV is increasing as indicated on both channels of instrumentation. NISA has indicated that some instruments in the reactor vessel may not be working properly. Drywell pressure is increasing slightly due to the addition of nitrogen. In Unit 2 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 144oC. The temperature at the bottom of RPV was not reported. Indicated Drywell pressure remains at atmospheric pressure. In Unit 3 the indicated temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 88oC and at the bottom of RPV is 112oC. Fresh water was sprayed onto the spent fuel pool by concrete pump vehicle (50t/h) from 21:53 UTC, 6th April.

    No change in status in Units 4, 5 and 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility.

    3. Radiation monitoring

    On 7th April, low levels of deposition of both iodine-131 and cesium-137 were detected in 5 and 4 prefectures respectively. The values reported for iodine-131 ranged from 3.8 to 20 becquerel per square meter, for cesium-137 from 9.7 to 25 becquerel per square meter.

    Gamma dose rates continue to decrease. For Fukushima, on 7th April a dose rate of 2.3 μSv/h, for the Ibaraki prefecture a gamma dose rate of 0.16 μSv/h was reported. Dose rates reported for the Eastern part of the Fukushima prefecture, for distances of more than 30 km to Fukushima-Daiichi, range from 0.2 to 28 µSv/h.

    As part of a new measurement program carried out by MEXT in cooperation with universities, gamma dose rates have also been measured in 26 cities in 13 prefectures for the period 5 to 7 April. In 19 cities, all measurements are below 0.1µSv/h. In a further five cities, some measurements are up to 0.21µSv/h. In the city of Tsukuba in the prefecture of Ibaraki, dose rates are in the range 0.17 to 0.2 0 µSv/h. In Fukushima City, the range is 0.42 to 0.5 µSv/h. typical normal background levels are in the range 0.05 to 0.1 µSv/h.

    As of 6th April, iodine-131 and cesium-137 was detectable in drinking water in a few prefectures at levels far below those that would initiate recommendations for restrictions of drinking water. As of 7th April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) remains in place as a precautionary measure in only one village of the Fukushima prefecture.

    Since our written briefing of yesterday, data related to food contamination was reported on 7th April by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. These reported analytical results covered a total of 63 samples taken from 5th -7th April. Analytical results for 62 of the 63 samples for various vegetables, spinach and other leafy vegetables, various meats, unprocessed raw milk and seafood in nine prefectures (Chiba, Fukushima, Gunma, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Kanagawa, Niigata, Tochigi and Yamagata) indicated that I-131, Cs-134 and/or Cs-137 were either not detected or were below the regulation values set by the Japanese authorities. One sample of spinach (grown outdoors) taken on 6th April in Ibaraki prefecture was above the regulation value set by the Japanese authorities for I-131.

    TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations. The near-shore sampling point for Daiichi Units 1 – 4 is located 330 m south of their common discharge point. The near-shore sampling point for Daiichi Units 5 and 6 is located 30 m north of their common discharge point.

    Until 3rd April a general decreasing trend was observed at these sampling points. After the discharge of contaminated water on 4th April, a temporary increase has been reported. On the 5th April a decrease was again observed at these points.

    At the Daini site, near-shore samples are being collected at two locations: directly north of the common discharge point of Daini, and close to Iwasawa Beach, which is south of Daini NPP. The latter monitoring point is 16 km south of Daiichi NPP on the northern boundary of TEPCO’s Hirono thermal power plant. Starting from the 2nd April, TEPCO collected samples at three additional sampling points lying on a north-south transect that runs parallel to the coast but at a distance of 15 km from the shore. On 4th April, a further set of three sampling points, also at 15 km from the shore, was added. All six sampling locations lie along a north-south transect.

    Since 5th April TEPCO is sampling daily at 6 points situated 15 km offshore along a north-south transect. Levels of radionuclides reported at these locations for the 5th of April are in the range 57 – 200 Bq/l for I-131, 57 - 310 Bq/l for Cs-134 and 18 – 320 Bq/l for Cs-137. Values of Cs-134 and Cs-137 measured at the sampling points situated at the North and South ends of the transect are considerably lower than those measured at the stations directly offshore from the release points.

    MEXT initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23rd March. Initially, the monitoring was carried out at 8 points lying on a north-south transect parallel to the coast and 30km off-shore. Sampling points 1 to 8 are separated by about 10km. On the 28th March, points 9 and 10 were added to the off-shore sampling scheme. Points 8, 9 and 10 lie in one line perpendicular to the coast. Points 8 to 10 are also separated by 10km. On 4th of April MEXT added two sampling points to the north- west of sampling point 1. These are referred as point A and B. Monitoring at off-shore points consist of:
    1. Measurements of ambient dose rate in air;
    2. Collection and analysis of surface sample of seawater;
    3. Collection and analysis of samples of sea water collected 10 meters above the sea water bottom.
    On the 8th April the only data reported concerned the 9 miles offshore north-south transect.

    **************
    **************

    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 9, 2011

    1. Current Situation

    Earthquake of 7 April

    The IAEA confirms that an earthquake occurred in Japan at 14:32 UTC 7th April. The IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre has rated it as a 7.1 magnitude, revised from an initial 7.4 magnitude. The epicenter of the earthquake was 20 km from the Onagawa nuclear power plant and approximately 120 km from the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants. With the recovery of external power at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, all sites reported on yesterday have external power.

    Changes to Fukushima Daiichi Plant Status

    In Units 1, 2 and 3, 60,000 tons of contaminated water need to be removed from the turbine buildings and trenches. This water will be transferred to the condensers of each unit and the Radioactive Waste Treatment facility. In addition, temporary storage tanks have been ordered to provide additional capacity for the water and will be located adjacent to the Radioactive Waste Treatment facility.

    Nitrogen gas is continuing to be injected into the Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel. The pressure in this containment vessel is increasing due to the addition of nitrogen.

    In Unit 1 fresh water is being continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. In Units 2 and 3 fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at indicated rates of 8 m3/h and 7 m3/h respectively using temporary electric pumps with off-site power.

    In Unit 1 the pressure in the RPV is increasing as indicated on both channels of instrumentation. NISA has indicated that some instruments in the reactor vessel may not be working properly. In Units 2 and 3 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure.

    RPV temperatures remain above cold shutdown conditions, typically less than 95oC. In Unit 1 temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 246oC and at the bottom of the RPV is 119oC. In Unit 2 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 141oC. The temperature at the bottom of the RPV was not reported. In Unit 3 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 89oC and at the bottom of the RPV is 110oC.

    The concrete pump vehicle continued to spray fresh water to the spent fuel pool in Unit 3 on 8 April.

    There has been no change in status in Units 4, 5 and 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    2. Radiation monitoring

    On 8th April, low levels of deposition of both iodine-131 and cesium-137 were detected in 10 and 7 prefectures respectively. The values reported for iodine-131 ranged from 1 to 46 becquerel per square meter, for cesium-137 from 5 to 42 becquerel per square meter.

    Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures and the values continue to decrease. For Fukushima, on 8th April a dose rate of 2.3 µSv/h, for the Ibaraki prefecture a gamma dose rate of 0.15 µSv/h were reported. The gamma dose rates reported for the other 45 prefectures were below 0.1µSv/h.

    Since the end of March, MEXT has set up an additional monitoring program in cooperation with local universities. Measurements are made in 26 cities in 13 prefectures. As of 8thApril, in 17 cities, the gamma dose rates were below 0.1 µSv/h. In 8 other cities, gamma dose rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 µSv/h, In Fukushima City, a value of 0.42 µSv/h was observed. Typical normal background levels are in the range 0.05 to 0.1 µSv/hr.

    The IAEA Team in Fukushima made measurements on the 8th April at 8 different locations at distances of 24 to 42 km, in Northwesterly directions from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 1.6 to 56 microsievert per hour. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 Megabecquerel per square meter. The highest beta-gamma contaminations have been determined at distances of less than 18 miles.

    Since our written brief of yesterday, data related to food contamination has not been reported. However, on 8th April the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare reported that the Emergency Response headquarters had approved the lifting of restrictions on the distribution of unprocessed raw milk in certain locations in Fukushima prefecture (city of Kitakata and the towns of Aizumisato, Bandai, Inawashiro, Michima, Minamiaizu and Simogo) and on the distribution of spinach and kakina in Gunma prefecture.

    As reported in the brief of 8th April TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations as illustrated in the Map 1

    Map 1: TEPCO Seawater Sampling Locations

    Until 3rd April a general decreasing trend was observed at the sampling points TEPCO 1 to TEPCO 4. After the discharge of contaminated water on 4th April, a temporary increase has been reported.

    On 6th April at the near-shore sampling points TEPCO 1, TEPCO 3 and TEPCO 4 a decrease in the concentration of I-131 and Cs-137 have been reported. However, at the sampling point TEPCO 2 an increase in the concentration of I-131 (from about 20 kBq/l on 5th April to about 40 kBq/l) and Cs-137 (from about 15 kBq/l on 5th April to about 25 kBq/l) was observed.

    For the six sampling points TEPCO 5 to TEPCO 10 on 6th April levels of I-131 below 0.4 kBq/l and Cs-137 below 0.2 kBq/l were measured.

    MEXT Off-shore Monitoring Program

    As reported in the brief of 8th April, MEXT initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23rd March and subsequently points 9 and 10 were added to the off-shore sampling scheme. On 4th April, MEXT added two further sampling points to the north and west of sampling point 1. These are referred to as points A and B on the map below.

    Map 2: MEXT Seawater Sampling Locations

    0n 9 April new data have been reported for samples taken on the 5th April. These data were for the sampling points MEXT3 and MEXT5. At MEXT3 there was an increase from about 3 Bq/l on 1st April to about 10 Bq/l on 5th April for I-131. At MEXT5 there was an increase from about 12 Bq/l on 1st April to about 65 Bq/l for I-131and from about 15 Bq/l to about 40 Bq/l for Cs-137 on 5th April.

    No new data for the other sampling points have been reported.

    **************
    **************

    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 10, 2011 @ 15:00 UTC

    Summary of Reactor Status

    1. Current Situation

    Earthquake of 7th April

    External power has been restored at all sites affected by the 7th April earthquake. The 3 litres of water that were spilled at Onagawa NPP have been cleaned up.

    Changes to Fukushima Daiichi Plant Status

    Overall, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi plant remains very serious but there are early signs of recovery in some functions such as electrical power and instrumentation.

    In Units 1, 2 and 3, 60,000 tons of contaminated water need to be removed from the turbine buildings and trenches. This water will be transferred to the condensers of each unit and the Radioactive Waste Treatment facility. In addition, temporary storage tanks have been ordered to provide additional capacity for the water and will be located adjacent to the Radioactive Waste Treatment facility. In Unit 2 water transfer from the condenser to the condensate storage tank was completed on 9th April.

    Nitrogen gas is being injected into the Unit 1 containment vessel to reduce the possibility of hydrogen combustion within the containment vessel. The pressure in this containment vessel is increasing due to the addition of nitrogen.

    In Unit 1 fresh water is being continuously injected into the reactor pressure vessel through feed-water line at an indicated flow rate of 6 m3/h using a temporary electric pump with off-site power. In Units 2 and 3 fresh water is being continuously injected through the fire extinguisher lines at indicated rates of 7 m3/h and 7 m3/h respectively using temporary electric pumps with off-site power.

    In Unit 1 the pressure in the RPV is increasing as indicated on both channels of instrumentation. NISA has indicated that some instruments in the reactor vessel may not be working properly. In Units 2 and 3 Reactor Pressure Vessel and Drywell pressures remain at atmospheric pressure.

    RPV temperatures remain above cold shutdown conditions, typically less than 95°C. In Unit 1 temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 235°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 120°C. In Unit 2 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 145°C. The temperature at the bottom of the RPV was not reported. In Unit 3 the temperature at the feed water nozzle of the RPV is 97°C and at the bottom of the RPV is 109°C.

    The concrete pump vehicle sprayed fresh water (90 T) to the spent fuel pool in Unit 4 on 9th April.

    There has been no change in status in Units 4, 5 and 6 and the Common Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    2. Radiation monitoring

    On 9th April, deposition of both iodine-131 and cesium-137 was detected in 5 and 6 prefectures respectively. The values reported for iodine-131 ranged from 7.8 to 650 becquerel per square meter and for cesium-137 from 3.3 to 370 becquerel per square meter. The highest deposition was reported for both, iodine-131 and cesium-137, in the prefecture of Ibaraki.

    Gamma dose rates are measured daily in all 47 prefectures, the values tend to decrease. Dose rates are also reported daily for the Eastern part of the Fukushima prefecture, these values are decreasing as well. As of 9th April, the gamma dose rates, reported for distances of more than 30 km to Fukushima-Daiichi, ranged from 0.2 to 26 μSv/h.

    In an additional monitoring program, set up by MEXT in cooperation with local universities, measurements are made in 27 cities in 14 prefectures. As of 9th April, in 19 cities, the gamma dose rates were below 0.1 μSv/h. In 7 cities, gamma dose rates range from 0.13 to 0.21 μSv/h. In Fukushima City, a value of 0.46 μSv/h was observed. Typical normal background levels are in the range of 0.05 to 0.10 μSv/hr.

    As of 7th April, iodine-131 and cesium-137 was detectable in drinking water in a few prefectures at levels far below those that would trigger recommendations for restrictions of drinking water. As of 7th April, one restriction for infants related to I-131 (100 Bq/l) is in place as a precautionary measure in only one village of the Fukushima prefecture.

    On 9th April, the IAEA Team made measurements at 8 different locations in the Fukushima area at distances of 32 to 62 km, North and North West from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At these locations, the dose rates ranged from 0.4 to 3.7 microsievert per hour. At the same locations, results of beta-gamma contamination measurements ranged from 0.03 to 0.19 Megabecquerel per square meter.

    3. Marine Monitoring

    As reported in the brief of 8th April TEPCO is conducting a program for seawater (surface sampling) at a number of near-shore and off-shore monitoring locations as illustrated in Map 1

    Map 1: TEPCO Seawater Sampling Locations

    [​IMG]

    Until 3rd April a general decreasing trend was observed at the sampling points TEPCO 1 to TEPCO 4. After the discharge of contaminated water on 4th April, a temporary increase has been reported. On 10th April new data (7th April sampling day) for all TEPCO sampling points have been reported. At the near-shore sampling points TEPCO 1, TEPCO 3 and TEPCO 4 a further decrease with respect to the results for the sampling day 5th April, in the concentration of I-131 and Cs-137 have been reported. At the sampling point TEPCO 2 a further increase in the concentration of I-131 (from about 40 kBq/l on 6 April to about 150 kBq/l) and Cs-137 (from about 25 kBq/l on 6th April to about 65 kBq/l) was observed.

    For the six sampling points TEPCO 5 to TEPCO 10th on April 7th the following has been reported: as TEPCO 5, TEPCO6 and TEPCO10 a further decrease of the levels of I-131 below 0.2 kBq/l and of Cs-137 below 0.1 kBq/l were measured.

    At TEPCO7 an increase of the level of I-131 has been recorded. At TEPCO8 and TEPCO9 an increase in the levels of both I-131 and Cs-137 has been measured. The reading at TEPCO 9 is from about 0.07 kBq/l (6th April) to about 0.37 kBq/l for I-131 and from about 0.05 kBq/l to about 0.21 kBq/l for Cs-137.

    MEXT Off-shore Monitoring Program

    As reported in the brief of 8th April MEXT initiated the off-shore monitoring program on 23rd March and subsequently points 9 and 10 added to the off-shore sampling scheme. On 4th April, MEXT added two sampling points to the north and west of sampling point 1. These are referred to as points A and B on the map below.

    Map 2: MEXT Seawater Sampling Locations

    [​IMG]

    On 10th April new data have been reported (7th April sampling day) for the sampling points MEXT6 and MEXT10. At MEXT6 sampling point an increase in I-131 (from about 18 Bq/l on 3rd April to about 57Bq/l) and Cs-137 (from about 10Bq/l on 3rd April to about 20 Bq/l) has been measured. At MEXT10 the level of I-131 remains about 35 Bq/l as on the 3rd of April; Cs-137 is no longer detectable.

    No new data for the other sampling points have been reported at the date of 10th April.

    **************
    **************

    Wayne
     
    Last edited: Apr 11, 2011
  14. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    Japan cannot seem to catch a break as another powerful 7.1 magnitude earthquake hit north-east Japan exactly one month after the devastating earthquake and tsunami.

    The 7.1 magnitude tremor triggered a tsunami warning and forced the evacuation of workers from the crippled Fukushima nuclear plant.

    The epicentre of the quake was in Fukushima prefecture, the same one where the stricken nuclear plants are located, and struck at a depth of just six miles.

    The earthquake occured just as Japan said it was extending the evacuation zone around the nuclear plant because of radiation concerns.

    The enlarged zone will encompass five communities beyond the existing 12-mile radius, where high radiation levels have been detected.
     
  15. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    The financial toll of the earthquake is being assessed by companies with a stake in Japan. GM has announced that it will cut spending across the company in an effort to preserve cash since it is experiencing a shortage of parts made in Japan

    Wayne
     
  16. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    The Oshika peninsula in Miyagi prefecture has moved 17.4 feet and dropped 3.9 ft. since the devastating March 11 quake. Both records for land mass movements in Japan according to government data.

    Wayne
     
  17. msirach

    msirach Well-Known Member

    More reality just on the news.
    From MSNBC
     
  18. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    A 6.4 Magnitude earthquake struck Japan again just a few hours ago. This one was centered off the Fukushima coast about 6-miles beneath the surface of the earth.

    NHK is reporting more on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant(s)…

    Nuclear Accident Level Raised to Maximum

    Japan's nuclear safety agency has raised the crisis level at the stricken Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to 7, the highest level from the current 5.

    The agency told reporters on Tuesday that large volumes of radioactive substances that could affect human health and the environment are being released in a wide area.

    Level 7 is the highest rank on an international standard and equivalent to the severity recorded after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.

    But the agency said the volume of radiation from Fukushima is one-tenth that at Chernobyl.

    The agency said its calculations show that 370-thousand terabecquerels of radioactive iodine 131 and cesium 137 have been released from the plant.

    The nuclear safety commission, in a joint press conference with the agency, put the estimated leak at 630-thousand terabecquerels of both substances.

    One terabecquerel is equivalent to one trillion becquerels. Both organizations say the leak constitutes a level-7 crisis.

    Senior agency official Hidehiko Nishiyama said 29 people died of acute radiation exposure at Chernobyl but there are no fatal radiation casualties at Fukushima.

    He added that at Chernobyl the nuclear reactor itself exploded in contrast to the Fukushima plant, which was damaged by hydrogen explosions. He said the reactors themselves retain their shape.

    The agency is required to announce the severity of a crisis at a nuclear facility based on the international standard from zero up to 7 set by the International Nuclear Event Scale.

    Wayne
     
  19. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi All:

    IAEA Update on Fukushima Nuclear Accident - April 12, 2011 @ 4:45 UTC

    The Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) today issued a new provisional rating for the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on the IAEA International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES).

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi is now rated as a level 7 "Major Accident" on INES. Level 7 is the most serious level on INES and is used to describe an event comprised of "A major release of radioactive material with widespread health and environmental effects requiring implementation of planned and extended countermeasures". Japanese authorities notified the IAEA in advance of the public announcement and the formal submission of the new provisional rating.

    The new provisional rating considers the accidents that occurred at Units 1, 2 and 3 as a single event on INES. Previously, separate INES Level 5 ratings had been applied for Units 1, 2 and 3. The provisional INES Level 3 rating assigned for Unit 4 still applies.

    The re-evaluation of the Fukushima Daiichi provisional INES rating resulted from an estimate of the total amount of radioactivity released to the environment from the nuclear plant. NISA estimates that the amount of radioactive material released to the atmosphere is approximately 10 percent of the 1986 Chernobyl accident, which is the only other nuclear accident to have been rated a Level 7 event.

    Earlier ratings of the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi were assessed as follows:

    On 18 March, Japanese authorities rated the core damage at the Fukushima Daiichi 1, 2 and 3 reactor Units caused by loss of all cooling function to have been at Level 5 on the INES scale. They further assessed that the loss of cooling and water supplying functions in the spent fuel pool of the Unit 4 reactor to have been rated at Level 3.

    Japanese authorities may revise the INES rating at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant as further information becomes available.

    INES is used to promptly and consistently communicate to the public the safety significance of events associated with sources of radiation. The scale runs from 0 (deviation) to 7 (major accident).

    For further information on the INES scale: http://www-ns.iaea.org/tech-areas/emergency/ines.asp

    Wayne
     
  20. Tochatihu

    Tochatihu Well-Known Member

    The USGS has a web page....

    Since the initial Since the initial 9.0 earthquake, there have been 939 aftershocks listed on the same 10 by 10 degree (lat/long) map. They say the only go down to magnitude 4.5, but a few have been rated smaller.

    These quakes scroll off the page in about a week, but I've been copying and pasting, to accumulate a complete list. Maybe in a few weeks the plates will quiet down.

    Whether this pattern is unusual or not for magnitude about 9, we'd have to ask the geologists. I imagine there will be a paper published pretty soon in Science or Nature.

    By any measure, the 50 aftershocks of magnitude 6 or greater (so far) is a lot.

    DAS
     

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