DOE fuel cost & emissions comparisons

Discussion in 'Emissions' started by 50 mpg by 2012, Dec 5, 2010.

  1. 50 mpg by 2012

    50 mpg by 2012 Well-Known Member

    I found an interesting site today http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/electric_emissions.html

    Site Assumptions
    1 Gasoline contains approximately 20 pounds of CO2 per gallon source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

    2 Grid electricity contains approximately 1.6 pounds of CO2 per kilowatt-hour (source: U.S. EPA).

    3 Electric efficiency is 0.2** kilowatt-hours (kWh) per mile (source: Idaho National Laboratory).

    4 Gasoline costs $2.50 per gallon.

    5 Electricity costs $0.12 per kWh source: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).

    6 Gas mileage rates are 26.7** miles per gallon (mpg) for conventional sedans and 38.7** mpg for HEV and PHEV sedans (source: U.S. EIA).

    . ** Be careful with these EPA assumptions and assessment values.


    CO2 emissions from a gallon of gasoline = 8,788 grams = 19.4 pounds/gallon

    Grid electricity contains approximately 1.6 pounds of CO2 per kilowatt-hour (source: U.S. EPA).

    CO2 emissions from a gallon of diesel = 10,084 grams = 22.2 pounds/gallon



    Results in the following per 100 miles (my assumptions and calculations):

    Conventional = 75 lb CO2; $9.36 fuel cost [assumes 26.7 mpg @ $2.50/gallon]

    Hybrid Electric = 52 lb CO2; $6.46 fuel cost [assumes 38.5 mpg @ $2.50/gallon] like the hybrid Fusion, Milan, and MKZ

    Prius = 40 lb CO2; $4.97 fuel cost [assumes 50 mpg @ $2.50/gallon]

    Volt = 54.7 lb CO2; $5.94 fuel cost [assumes (Volt) 12.9 kWh/35 miles @ 12¢/kWh and 37 mpg @ $2.50/gallon]

    Leaf = 54.8 lb CO2; $4.08 fuel cost [assumes 340 Wh/miles @ 12¢/kWh]

    61 mpg(US) combined Focus diesel = 36.4 lb CO2; $5.08 fuel cost in mixed driving [assumes 61 mpg(US) combined for the light-footed US driver @ $3.10/gallon for diesel]
    http://www.autocar.co.uk/SpecsPrice...n/Ford-Focus-1.6-TDCi-109-ECOnetic-S/S/58784/

    There is an Astra diesel that is NEDC rated at about 63 mpg(US) combined as well.
    http://www.autocar.co.uk/SpecsPrices/SpecsAndPricesEdition/Vauxhall-Astra-1.3-CDTi-ecoFLEX-ES/60136/

    BUT ... please DO NOT OVERLOOK Geely's 62 mpg(US) combined 2010 Volvo C30, S40, and V50 DRIVe Stop/Start DIESELS that are right up there with those 60 plus mpg Ford Fiesta, Focus, and Astra diesels.
    http://www.autocar.co.uk/SpecsPrices/SpecsAndPricesEdition/Volvo-V50-1.6D-DRIVe-ES-Start/Stop/60223/

    Just in case anyone is interested.
     
  2. xcel

    xcel PZEV, there's nothing like it :) Staff Member

    Hi 50 mpg by 2012:

    The EPA numbers for the conventional are not offset but CAFÉ numbers. The nations current light duty fleet is currently pulling ~ 21.5 mpgUS actual.

    Gasoline's CO2 listed above is only from tank to wheel. You can add between 9.6 and 9.9 pounds from well to tank.

    The LEAF is a lot more efficient than 340 Wh/mile. In my 9.9 mile drive, she allowed more along the lines of 126 Wh/mile.

    If you want to know about FE numbers from a range of European diesels, (NEDC for the most part), just look for them here. Focus and Fiesta Econetic’s, BMW 116d, 118d and latest 320d's, Audi A3 TDI with the 1.6L and 2.0L, VW with the 1.2L, 1.6L and 2.0L TDI's, Lexus IS 220d plus a number of others… Remember however that NEDC does not equate to the 08 EPA without a serious negative offset of between 18 and 25% needing to be applied.

    Results in the following per 100 miles (my calculations):
    • 2011 Nissan Leaf @ 250 Wh/mile: 25 kWh or 40 lbs CO2; $3.00 fuel cost

    • 2011 Prius PHEV-12/13 @ 48 mpg and 250 Wh/mile: 1.82 gallons and 3.125 kWh or 53.7 lb CO2 from gasoline and 5 pounds from Electricity for a total of 58.7 lbs of CO2; $5.10 gasoline cost + $0.37 electricity cost = $5.47 fuel cost total @ $2.80 per gallon and $0.12/kWh.

    • 2011 Prius Hybrid @ 50 mpgUS: 2.0 gallons or 59 lbs CO2; $5.60 fuel cost @ $2.80/gallon.

    • 2011 Chevrolet Volt @ 37 mpg and 350 Wh/mile: 1.75 gallons and 12.25 kWh or 51.8 lb CO2 from gasoline and 19.6 pounds from Electricity for a total of 71.4 lbs of CO2; $4.90 gasoline cost + $1.47 electricity cost = $6.37 fuel cost total @ $2.80 per gallon and $0.12/kWh.

    • 2011 Ford Fusion/Lincoln MKZ Hybrid @ 39 mpgUS: 2.56 gallons or 75.6 lbs CO2; $7.17 fuel cost @ $2.80 per gallon.

    • 2011 VW Jetta TDI @ 34 mpgUS: 2.94 gallons or 94.4 lbs CO2; $9.40 fuel cost @ $3.20/gallon.

    • Conventional @ 21.6 mpgUS: 4.62 gallons or 136.5 lbs CO2; $12.94 fuel cost @ $2.80/gallon.
    Remember our E-Mail? This is where the real numbers hit the road.

    One of the scientists from the Toyota Sustainability conference I was at last spring had all of this plus a lot more doc’ed and the Prius PHEV with its 12/13 mile AER range made the most sense from a CO2 and fuel cost perspective when the actual production LCA’s were incorporated. This is of course neglecting upfront costs for the vehicles purchase because the Volt, Leaf and Prius PHEV-12/13 prices were not released at that time.

    Volt at 340 to 350 Wh/mile? It is a little lower. Prius PHEV at 250 Wh/mile? Probably slightly higher.

    Good Luck

    Wayne
     
  3. 50 mpg by 2012

    50 mpg by 2012 Well-Known Member

    Last edited: Dec 11, 2010

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